Energy and fuels

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Energy and fuels are representing a product group which is mainly relevant for energy storage and energy supply in form of electricity and heat as well as for the transportation and mobility sector in form of gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels.


In the context of this database, energy can be obtained or used in a process primarily through heat generation (e.g. in thermochemical processes such as Pyrolysis and Gasification) whereby the generated heat can also be transformed into electricity as another form of energy. Heat generation can either be the main goal of a process or only a side effect which is often used to cover the necessary process energy. In terms of a circular economy, the recovery or use of energy can therefore make a valuable contribution by converting low-quality or heavily contaminated waste streams into usable products and/or making processes more efficient/sustainable in terms of energy.


Fuels are representing liquid, gaseous, and solid substances , which are used to generate energy (e.g. in form of heat or electricity via engines) or to execute work (e.g. movement via engines). However, not every fuel can be eclusively be used as fuel. Hydrogen for instance can be used as a fuel (e.g. for hydrogen burners or fuel cells) but it can also be used as an ingredient for the chemical industry.

Specific energy and fuels

Depending on the chemical/physical structure, composition, and application field the energy and fuels can be divided into different groups. The following non-exhaustive list shows the potential main groups. The decision support tool aids the search for suitable conversion technologies capable to produce energy and fuels from food waste as well as garden and park waste.

  • Energy
    • Electricity
    • Heat
  • Fuels
    • Advanced fuels
    • Biogas
    • Ethanol
    • Fuel additives
    • Glycerol tertiary butyl ether
    • Jet fuel
    • Lignin-based biofuel
    • Marine Fuel